MID ICT

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

 

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an intercontinental and interdisciplinary which leads the field in its dedication to all matters associated with the use of computers in language learning (L1 and L2), teaching and testing. It provides a forum to discuss the discoveries in the field and to exchange experience and information about existing techniques. Computer Assisted Language learning actually started when the Microchip Computer founded by International Business Machine (IBM) and Apple Power Machintos introduced portable computer at 1981 because this period computer started expand to university and school. Using computer as language learning is unlimited media; all the materials and discourses today available inside. Applied linguistics concerned with the use of computers for teaching and learning a second language. Some CALL professionals develop CALL materials that are software specifically designed for second-language learning. Others investigate how learners work with CALL software and other online learning mate well as how effective particular CALL activities are. CALL, as an academic area.

The Advantage of CALL

Computer assisted language learning today help the learner in language learning process. According to the research activities, the internet changes the interaction between learners and teachers (Kern, 1995): There is less teacher and more learner talk in computer classes. Furthermore, it changes teacher and students’ roles (Peterson, 1997) and makes learning more student-centered (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1996). The internet is a source of supplemental resources and authentic materials (Graus, 1999). The studies indicate that the internet has positive effects on motivation (Muehleisen, 1997), provides means for creative works (Singhal, 1997) and gives opportunities for collaboration and socialization in learning process (Means and Olson, 1997). It clear that Computer assisted language learning are able to make student motivated to learn.

 Disadvantages of CALL

Research activities show that there are some disadvantages of the internet use in second language learning. First, communication with native speakers affects reading skills defectively (Kern, 1995). This is also valid for listening, speaking and writing skills. Though it is a fact that the internet improves communicational and language skills, the significant point is that teachers and learners are not sometimes aware of why, how, whom and where they teach and learn. Second, though a mass of materials in the internet can be found, integration of the materials into second language curriculum is a potential difficulty.

Conclusion

With its advantages and disadvantages, the internet with CALL has significant effects on communicating, teaching and learning. Thus, both teachers and learners should have the chance of internet accessibility, experience and familiarity with its functions in educational life. For this purpose, before using the internet in second language learning and teaching activities, teachers and learners should be instructed. This is a must to use it in language classrooms efficiently. On the other hand, it should be known that the internet is not sufficient itself to teach and learn a second language. In other words, it cannot include all teaching and learning activities and be replaced the real teaching and learning environment, such as language classroom and real-life communication. As a result, it is only a tool for educational activities. However, it can be implicated that the research has not concluded on the issue yet. Thus, research issue should focus on a great variety of the internet use in language learning and teaching such as attitudes of learners and teachers towards it, individual differences on using the internet, effective ways to use it, the suitability of educational and instructive purposes and the effects on teaching and learning. As a final point, it is possible to say that technology is not a purpose but only a tool for all humanistic necessities.

Guidelines for Teachers. http://www.cdli.ca/~achafe/Internetinclassroom.html
Graus, J. (1999). An Evaluation of the Internet in the EFL Classroom.

            http://home.plex.nl/~jgraus
Kern, R. (1995). Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects

on quantity and quality of language production. Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 457-476.

Muehleisen, V. (1997) Projects Using the Internet In College English Class. The Internet TESL Journal, 3(6), [Online], URL http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Lessons/Muehleisen-Projects.html June 1997

Singhal, M. (1997). The internet and foreign language education: Benefits and

challenges, the Internet

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By teguh2tyo

Final Assignment

Researh for students motivated in learningfor vocabulary  achievement by usingsituational interested texts in google.

THE INFLUENCE OF READING ARTICLE  AS SITUATIONAL INTERESTED TEXT IN GOOGLE FOR INCREASING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENTAT THE FIRST SEMESTER OF CLASS NINTH SMK YPT PRINGSEWU LAMPUNG

 

RESARCH PAPER FOR ICT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

Name                          :   Teguh Eko Setio

Semester                   :  I / Non-Reguler

Student Number  :  1108066041


DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION GRADUATE SCHOOL

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA

2011


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

TABLE LIST 

 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
REFERENCES

TABLE LIST

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1 Background of the Problem

In the modern era that people in this world never think before that communication today becomes so complex because when we try to compare about ninth century and today, we will see many differences for people doing their communication. Interaction between one and another at the ninth century just a simple communication done by person to another face to face or by using mail or morse coding. It is absolutely difference today there are many tools today to be used as the media and the most progress media is computer. The result of the explanation above is language development of language today becomes large. We can see here not only human are able to use language but machines are able to use language, at least computer many human activities or human work is done by the computer. As Licklider explained that

“ ………foresaw many future computer applications and advances in communication technology,  such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are common place today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications (Licklider 2001,1).

It has been stated that the computer invention would come to human being ability and all the activities inside until human communication included.

That is clear since the first time computer chip completed found by Apple Power Machintos; computer has an effort to imitate what human do. It goes to language learning and teaching too almost teachers and students know about the computer today, moreover the internet with hypertext system invents the system of the computer for making unlimited access and spread the communication via machines. For today we can’t say anymore, “Language is a system of communication in speech and writing which is used by people; therefore, people around the world use language as lingua franca only.” language today get wider area besides the main function as tool of communication, language able to get in  hypertext system in the internet because by using the internet system all the people can be connected fast and directly at the same time and it the same as English as the international lingua franca is supported by hypertext system in the internet.

For those reasons above adaptation in receiving and using the English as international communication media in the internet becomes one of the important processes. There are many languages are used in the computer as the main equipment of the internet; directly, for Indonesian students can avoid English language as the foreign language should be learnt and understood. Almost the people accept that the using English language for communication in the internet becomes popular in this world because the development of politic, economic, social, and education become integrated on the one global movement that using internet as the media. So English as the main language in the internet becomes the most important for people who want to develop for their life and it needs for the students as the front generation.

English language generally taught at schools; thus, it is learnt by the learners started from primary school up to university, and actually it is enough for the students and teacher to face the global progression today. Life developments use internet as main media for human life activity like education, so it should be awareness for the teachers and learner to know the development of language learning by using hypertext system at least the teacher understand the internet system to develop the students skill and ability in learning language. Learning English as a language involves integral participation of language skill namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing for teaching and learning a language which four aspects  support four language skills above such as grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation that are also taught in English teaching learning process. One of aspects is completely important in learning a language that is vocabulary because limited vocabularies will true affect the understanding of English language skill. Vocabulary is one of the problems confronted by English language learners; therefore, the acquisition of a large number of vocabularies can help the learners to understand English. Based on the preliminary of the research, the researcher found a problem that was faced by the ninth grade learners at SMK YPT Pringsewu the learners were lack of vocabularies which has been found when the researcher tried to elicit some vocabularies related to the topic of material taught, here the learners were only confusing toward some vocabularies which were appeared in the text of the article and the instruction from the internet. To prove that learners were lack of vocabulary, by giving pretest, the researcher could take the learners’ score, therefore, the English teacher has to be able to organize teaching and learning activities, to give materials by using a suitable technique and to master the lesson effectively. That is why in this research, the researcher tried to apply a treatment to help the students in increasing vocabulary, and the treatment is by using reading articles as situational interested text in Google, here teachers must make the learners find out the link and the articles from Google search engine after that read the articles and follow the link from the articles. The students who open the links of the articles will follow the links indirectly to complete what they want to know. The writer tried to apply a treatment by using reading articles in Google in increasing learners’ vocabulary. Hopeful the reading articles as situational interested text  Google can attract learners’ interesting in acquiring vocabulary. Based on the explanation above, the researcher would like to conduct a research for final examination’s assignment entitles THE INFLUENCE OF READING ARTICLES AS SITUATIONAL INTERESTED TEXT IN GOOGLE FOR INCREASING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT AT THE FIRST SEMESTER OF CLASS NINTH IN SMK YPT PRINGSEWU LAMPUNG.

 

1.2 The Formulation of The Problem

Based on the problem which is discussed in the background above, the researcher would like to formulate the problem as follow:

1.      How is the implementation reading articles as situational interested text in Google increase the students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung?

2.      Can the reading articles as situational interested in Google influence the increasing students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung?

1.3 The Objective of the Problem

Based on the problem formulation, the researcher want to know the objective of this research as follow:

1.      To know how the implementation reading articles as situational interested text in Google increase students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung.

2.      To find out whether the reading articles as situational interested text in Google increase students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung.

1.4 The Research Benefit

The writer hopes that the benefit of this scientific paper can be used for:

  1. 1.      For Education

To give idea, information, and motivation for teachers to teach their learners especially in increasing vocabulary achievement by using reading articles as situational interested text in Google.

  1. 2.      For Researcher

This research is useful for researchers so that to know about reading articles as situational interested text in Google. which can influence the increasing learners’ vocabulary achievement. It could be as guidance to another researcher who has the same purpose as this research.

1.5 The Scope of the Problem

The researcher would like to talk about the influence of reading articles as situational interested text in Google in increasing learners’ vocabulary achievement as reflected by 34 learners at the first semester of class ninth A at SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung. The test which has been applied was objective tests.

CHAPTER TWO

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

 2.1 Concept Reading Article in Google

An article in Google is form of news which published by the Webster, blogger, or the search engines. It provides news or current issues with the content as the main element. It consist of text, situational interested text , and linked to another article so the reader can go to another page for fulfill what the reader need. Directly the articles in the internet always invite the reader to read and open new pages. This condition is made by the Webster or Blogger who provide page posting for the reader while there are some search engines do the same to publish what they have in large field completed by some features included. As Wikipedia mentions:

“Article discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or of a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites). A news article can include accounts of eye witnesses to the happening event. It can contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls, debates on the topic, etc. Headlines can be used to focus the reader’s attention on a particular (or main) part of the article” (Wikipedia2012,01).

Actually it will be the same as the article in news paper but article in the internet has more features to make the reader interest. Reading article in the internet today becomes usual for almost people in this world, it started from children until adult even an old man. One of the most user of the article is student because internet provide what the students need inside. In learning language reading article has big influence for the student’s development by the article in the internet students can find learning materials. The researcher here try to guide the students learn reading by using articles in Google. The researcher as the teacher in the class uses some method in teaching such as procedure in student’s exploration for the prior knowledge and ability. Before the articles introduce to the students, the researcher as the teacher gives engaging to the students to appear the student’s experience and what students like or popular issues  for motivating the students. As Campbell states:

“Another way of making language instruction relevant and interesting to students is to find out what topics they are studying and draw materials for reading and discussion from those fields. However, remember that reading and discussion do not always have to be about serious issues or academic topics. Students enjoy talking about movies and television programs, vacation plans, famous people, and other popular culture topics” (Campbell 1996,9795R).

 Popular issues and students experiences make students desire appear when students think the subject which they learn something about they know even understand. For all about learning English language by using internet as the media makes the students interested because basically internet always invites the user to open new page and it means invites the reader to read more.

 2.2 Concept of Reading Articles as Situational Interested Text

Reading strategies that proficient readers use and trying to make sense out of text helps students understanding and create independent readers. Activating prior knowledge identify as key for reading comprehension success. Students can be strongly motivated by explored the knowledge or the ability that student know before, but sometimes class condition shows that alarming numbers of capable students rarely read without a teacher request and make an effort to use reading comprehension strategies. Since the amount of reading is strongly associated with reading achievement, non-reading students fall behind. Though they may lack competence, crucially they lack of motivation. Since both competence and commitment are necessary for school-relevant literacy, schools need to incorporate practices ensuring that readers are motivated as well as skilled. Reading motivation provides a classroom example illustrating a motivational classroom. As Guthrie stated

“Students’ motivation for learning a language increases when they see connections between what they do in the classroom and what they hope to do with the language in the future. Their attention increases when classroom activities are relevant to their other interests” (Guthrie 1996:306).

It is clear that indirectly the students are able to understand thus comprehend for the reading if they have an expectation with discourse or the text which students read and because the motivation are going to appear in the condition when the students prior knowledge explored.

Students reading ability has two ways achievement: first individual interested text and the second is situational interested text, both texts have different character when students try to acquire the comprehension. Individual interested text makes the students comprehension endures through various encounters with an object while try then students directly engage the text inside as Guthrie mention in his journal Situational interest can direct many literacy activities. Tangible objects can initiate reading-comprehension activities in informational texts. (1996; 332) Individual and situational interested text can be used well in the class, but the writer here wants to try to explore the situational interested text because for the technique vocational almost the students are male who learn English as foreign language feel more comfortable when the teacher in the classroom has informal style of delivering the materials.

Students actually are able to accept reading materials whose teacher delivers if the teacher completes strategy to teach reading anyway. Almost reading texts for the students to learn has aim for the reader so here teachers’ duty to brings the aim of the text with the method that makes the student easy to accept; situational interested text by explore students prior knowledge and ability make the motivation appear when the article of reading deliver.

2.3 Concept of Vocabulary

Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills; vocabulary building is really important in language learning it realizes how important the mastery of vocabulary is, particularly for people who study English as a foreign Language. As a statement by Crystal that “…vocabulary is the Everest of language” (Crystal 1995,116). It means that people who want to be able in communicating in certain language, they should master the vocabularies of that language first. Moreover, Hornby speculated that: “… vocabulary is a list of words with their meaning especially is important for learning a foreign language. (Hornby 1963,144). By paying attention to the statement above defined that increasing vocabulary is important for learning foreign language. It is based on the language using as a communication tool besides structure for words arrangement vocabulary has main function in communication.

The learners of foreign language will speak fluently and accurately, write easily, or understand what they read or hear if they have enough vocabulary and a capability of using it accurately. As the statement of Schmitt that:”.. …vocabulary is one of the most important skills in a language” (Schmitt 1997,40).  So in achieving the success in language teaching learning process especially English; vocabulary is one of important factors in all language teaching. It is obvious that vocabulary is very important in learning foreign language because the English vocabularies are extremely large and varies as well. It is important also to know the synonym of word in increasing vocabulary so that the learners would not have some mistakes related to the sentences made. Sometimes we found a single meaning that has different word in English; moreover, a word that has more than one meaning depends of the context of sentences. Highly essential for English teachers help the students in mastering vocabulary According to Collier: “….when a student has mastered the fundamental of grammatical patterns of the language, his next task is to master its vocabulary, or at least that of its vocabulary that he need.” (Collier 1971,1).  The statement above vocabulary is important to be known, to be learnt and to be used. Students who learns a language as a foreign language is hoped to know and master the vocabulary to improve the language skills. Vocabulary is considered as the most important part in learning a language.

 

2.4 Hypothesis

Based on the theories and assumption above, the writer can make hypothesis of this research as follows:

  1. Reading articles as situational interested text in Google can influence the increasing students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung
  2. Reading articles as situational interested text in Google can not influence the increasing students’ vocabulary achievement at the first semester of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

 In doing research we need knowledge and information about its role and regulation. We can define that research is a way to find, develop, and test from the real of science which is done by natural science. We can discover the role and regulation by using science that learn or expound about method. Because every research has its own formulation. Therefore the method used is different. Method is the explanation of how the data was analyzed, made explanation of methodological problems, and the solution of the effects; moreover Sugiyono states “…… method is a natural way to find the data with purpose and usefulness certainly” (Sugiyono 2009:2). Method is important to reach the objective of the study and can help the researcher  to capture a good result with knowledge which learns more about method usually used by researcher in conducting the research called as methodology.

Fathoni said that: “….. methodology is the science about methods that used in doing a research” (Fathoni 2006,98). Methodology is quite needed in doing research and it gives guidance to the researcher about what should they do and how to arrange the research. That is why methodology is the most important part of many reports and may well be done only section that some readers will read in detail.

 3.1 Research Design

In research should be a design to complete. As the definition of research that is a process of finding something systematically for long term by using the natural method and regulations to get result of research. Research design is planed of research that the researcher conducts in research. From that elaboration means that research design is the planning and conducting the research itself. Nazir stated that: “……research design is all process which is needed on planning and implementation of research or all process about collecting data analysis. (Nazir 2005,85) That is why research design is one of part in a research.

There are two kinds of research design that known in methodology; they are qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative refers to the cause and result of variable and it tends to use scoring or statistic. Meanwhile, qualitative tends to describe social phenomenon and develops the understanding about the meaning. In another exposition that the design of quantitative research is to strive the comprehending of the phenomenon and the data should be collected and focus to the measuring, otherwise in qualitative research there is no intervention of the research toward the phenomenon and it tends to describe and develop. In this research, the writer used descriptive method as Surahmad explains: “Descriptive method is a method which simple analysis, classifying and investigation by using test technique, case study, comparative study or operational study” (Surahmad 1985,139) It means that in doing the research by collecting data, the writer uses test.

Since this research uses population and sample also focuses toward the scoring, so it could be concluded that this research design refers to quantitative. Sugiyono said: “Quantitative is used to research the population and sample” (Sugiyono 2009,14). The statement means that quantitative tends to use population and sample. By getting sample, the researcher will get the information through the research applied. Meanwhile Masyuri stated: “…….quantitative is way to recover the objectives and tends to use statistic formulation in scoring the data” (Masyuri 2008,13). It is clear that a research which uses population and sample will refer to quantitative research because in quantitative, the researcher does not focus to describe and develop the understanding about the meaning, but it is only focus toward the scoring sample of population.

Quantitative always applies statistic formulation in analyzing the data; meanwhile, the data itself collected by giving questions as the researcher does to the students. If someone uses quantitative research, so later on it will influence the data analysis because the way to analyze the data depend on the design if the design of research is quantitative tends to use statistical analysis. The data which has been collected can be number or statistic in a research called as Description-Quantitative method. Because this research needs statistic in analyzing the data, so the suitable method applied is Description-Quantitative method.

 

3.2 Population and Sample

Every research needs the objective to be researched. The objective is amount of population. Commonly in research, the researcher only takes some of population as the sample which represents all population. Therefore, the researcher should think about the population which would be observed because by observing the population, researcher can get the objective of the study needed. First of all, the researcher must know about the population and sample deeply.

3.2.1 The Population of the Research

Population is definitely needed in research. If we have known the population means that the first step in getting the data needed as a proof in research itself. As Sugiyono said: “Population is general area and consists of object that have quality and chosen certain character by researcher to be learnt and later on to be drawn a conclusion”(Sugiyono 2009,117) By understanding that statement, it is clear that population is general place that consists of subject in research or in simply where the place in conducting the research.

Meanwhile Arikunto said: “ ….. population is the total number of subject in certain level and period of time” (Arikunto 1989:102) it means that population is number of person or thing in certain time and level in life. Concerning to the population, the researcher of this research also has population in conducting this research paper, population in this research is the students of class ninth in the first semester at SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung academic year 2011/2012.

 

3.2.2 The Sample of the Research

The sample of this research is a part of the population of the subject that will be researched or that will be represented of whole population. According to Sugiyono: “ …… sample is a part of amount and characteristic that the population has”  (Sugiyono 2009,118). So, sample is part of population that will get treatment. It means that sample is main part of research, and from sample itself, we can conduct the scoring of research. While, Arikunto stated:  “ …..if population which is less than 100 it was better than all the population are taken as a sample, if the population is big subject can be taken 10 – 15% or 20 – 25 % or more. (Arikunto 1997, 112) From the statement above means that if the population is too big, while the time, financial, or force is limited; the researcher can take sample from the population. In this case, it could be taken sample 21% from total the population that is 21% x 164 = 34 students. The researcher only used one class that is class Ninth A that consists of 34 students because the researcher thought it was enough and that class could represent others.

3.3 Data Collecting Technique

The data collecting technique is the technique to get the data for research. In doing research, the writer needs some data to complete the research. Without understanding the data collecting technique, the researcher could not get the suitable data with standard of data which has been determined. So, data collecting technique is the way or style in gathering data. In collecting data process, the researcher uses following techniques, are:

 

3.3.1 Observation

One of the techniques used in research is observation. Observation is activity or detailed study of a subject to discover new fact information naturally. Based on the elucidation of Nasution: “ …… observation is the act which discovers a situation naturally without deliberately to influence, arrange, and do manipulation”  (Nasution 2009,106). The researcher observed the students’ activity in class during the teaching learning process. From the observation, the researcher can capture the students’ problem during learning process. By this observation, the researcher found that the students have low of vocabulary. Later on, the researcher gave the treatment to the students by using situational interested text  in increasing their vocabulary achievement.

 

3.3.2 Applying Pretest

After getting the problem of students in learning process, the researcher did not directly apply the treatment. But, the first step that should be done by the researcher is applying pretest to the students of the sample of population. As the statement by Sugiyono: Pretest is the test which is given before giving the treatment. (Sugiyono2009,74). To get the data of students’ vocabulary achievement, before giving the treatment, the researcher gave the students some objectives test that is multiple choice and matching test. Total of the test items are 20 items that consist of four option (a, b, c, d) is 10 items, and the others are matching tests (situational interested text). The score for true answer would be 5 and false answer would be 0. So the maximum score would be 100 and the minimum would be 0. This pretest is really important in getting the information about the students’ vocabulary achievement.

 

3.3.3 Applying Posttest

After giving the treatment to the students in increasing vocabulary, so the researcher needs to give the next test to measure how far the students’ achievement in vocabulary. Therefore, the researcher gave posttest to the students.  Total of test items is 20 items also. The score of each item in posttest and pretest is same. It is deliberately done by the researcher to keep the validity of the test itself.

3.4 Data Analyzing Technique

The researcher gave treatment to the students to help the students in increasing their vocabulary. Meanwhile, there will be some datum which will be collected and analyzed by the researcher after giving treatment and the test (pretest and posttest), as Nazir states: “Data analyzing technique is process to collect, to make procedure, to make manipulation and to shorten the data in order to ease to rend” (Nazir 2005,358) Based on statement above, the researcher need the techniques which can help in analyzing the datum collected. The student’s competence in comprehending the material, which was analyzed by the writer applied several techniques. The first is interpretation stage is giving the meaning or definition or explanation as much as possible and later on the data will be interpreted well. Then giving test to the student that form pretest and posttest, the researcher deliberately analyzing the students’ score toward the test given about vocabulary. Giving Student’s Code to ease in analyzing data based on the list number of the students, like:

No       Student’s Code

1          AA

2          AB

The researcher gave the report about result of the research in comparing between result of pretest and posttest. The following is formulation given:

O1 X O2

X         = Treatment which is given (situational interested text )

            O1          = Score of Pretest (before giving treatment)

            O2          = Score of Posttest (after giving treatment)

By comparing the result of pretest and posttest, the researcher can eye whether the treatment given influence the progress of the students’ vocabulary achievement or not. Sugiyono stated that: “ ….the experiment can be done by comparing the situation (before and after) or pretest and posttest” (Sugiyono 2009,303). That is why the researcher needed to compare both result of test in research. After that, the writer can measure the progress of the students achievement in vocabulary, the formulation of the influence of treatment toward the score is below:

O2 – O1

                                                O1 = Score of Pretest

                                                O2 = Score of Posttest

            Besides measuring the progress of students’ vocabulary achievement, the researcher may analyze the average of students’ scores in comparing students’ scores between pretest and posttest in form of statistic, by using formulation. The formulation of average (Mean) is below:

Note: ∑fi = Total of Frequency to-i

xi = lim up + lim down

2

(Limited up and limited down)

Total of correct answer

                                      X 100%

Total of items number

After knowing the average of students’ score in both pretest and posttest, so researcher can know the result before and after giving the treatment was satisfied or not. Then the researcher analyzed students’ score to know how many the percentage of students’ vocabulary achievement from the comparison of both pretest and posttest result. The formulation used is follow:

After analyzing the data, it is turn for the researcher to see the reliability of the test of pretest and posttest. Here, the researcher uses Spearman-brown formula (split half), things need to be calculated to use this formula is by dividing the number of students into two groups, upper and lower, and the answer of the students should be divided into two groups odd and even number.

The formulation is:

Notes:

r           = Coefficient reliability between odd and even

n          = Number of students

∑X      = Total score of odd number

∑Y      = Total score of even number

X²        = Square of X

Y²        = Square of Y

By applying formulation above, the researcher needs the formulation to complete the reliability. To know the coefficient all of test items, the researcher uses the following formulation:

And the criterion of the reliability is:

0.90 -1.00        = high

0.50 – 0.89       = moderate (satisfactory)

0.00 ­ 0.49       = low

The result of distribution of students’ score can be analyzed in Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power by formulation:

LD = Level of Difficulty

R   = Number of students who answer correctly

N   = Total of Students

The formulation above tells us about the extent to which the items are difficult or easy. Meanwhile to know the extent to which the item is discriminating between the low level students and the high level students on that test (mainly in norm reference tests) uses Discrimination Power, the formulation:

DP  = Discrimination Power

U    = Number of correct answer in Upper class

L     = Number of correct answer in Lower class

N    = Total of students

And the criterion is:

DP: 0.00 – 0.19                      = poor

DP: 0.20 – 0.39                      = satisfactory

DP: 0.49 – 0.69                      = good

DP: 0.70 – 1.00                      = excellent

DP: Negative (-)                     = bad item, should be omitted

(Sudjana.1996:27)

And the last, the researcher uses validity of the test because one of the factors for determining the quality of the test is Validity. Here, the researcher uses three types of validity, they are content validity, construct validity and face validity.

3.5 Research Procedure

The procedures of research mean the steps of data collecting technique used by the writer to analyze the data and interpretation, covered:

1. Doing Observation

The first step is done by the researcher in this research is observation. In this case, the observation is applied in population of students class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu. After conducting observation, the researcher can capture the students’ problem namely low of vocabulary. Therefore the researcher needed to give some treatment to help the students in increasing vocabulary. In this research, the researcher gave treatment by using situational interested text. Because of some reason such as the time, financial, force is limited, so the researcher applied treatment in one class as the sample. In this case, the sample is class ninth A.

 

2. Implementation the Pretest

The researcher implemented the pretest in order to find out the students’ basic ability before treatments. In this test, the researcher gave the objective test especially vocabulary related to the   as the theme of material given. Multiple choices and matching test are given in measuring students’ vocabulary of class Ninth. The test items are 20 items.

3. Calculating and Analyzing Result of Pretest

To know the students result after getting pretest, so the researcher calculated the students’ answer in answer sheet to know their score. After that, the researcher analyzed the data involved the average of students’ score, the percentage of students’ vocabulary achievement, the reliability of test, level of difficulty and discrimination power of the test, and some validity of the test.

4. Applying Treatment

Before coming to the real material, learning vocabulary will be better to ease in learning the material given later on. Because the theme of material is about so the researcher decided to give some explanation related to the it hopes able to increase students’ vocabulary and later it could be useful in learning the material given.

5. Implementation the Posttest

As the purpose of using situational interested text  that is to increase students’ vocabulary achievement, that is why after giving treatment, the researcher gave the post test to measure the progress of students’ vocabulary achievement. The test items are multiple choices and matching test. The total of test items is 20 items also.

 

6. Calculating and Analyzing Result of Posttest

As the researcher did to the result of pretest, in knowing the students result after getting posttest, so the researcher alculated the students’ answer in answer sheet to know their score. After that, the researcher analyzed the data involved the average of students’ score, the percentage of students’ vocabulary achievement, the reliability of test, level of difficulty and discrimination power of the test, and some validity of the test.

 

7. Processing the Data

After getting the result of pretest and posttest, the researcher, the researcher can start processing the data by comparing and analyzing both of them. Comparison from pretest score and posttest score can be the progress of students’ achievement in learning vocabulary. In processing the data, the researcher needs high concentration because later on the data would be reported in a paper as the result of research.

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

 4.1 Result

4.1.1 The Implementation and Process of The Research

The researcher did the research toward the students of class ninth in SMK YPT Pringsewu Lampung when the researcher applied. There was a class as the sample of the research that is class ninth consists of 25 males and 8 females. Since the students of this class have low motivation in increasing vocabulary, therefore the researcher chooses this class as the sample of research. The purpose of this research is to help the students in increasing their vocabulary’s achievement.

In this research the researcher applied reading articles as situational interested text in Google as one way of teaching reading to bring the students in the new experience of learning. At the first of teaching the researcher comes to the class and directly goes to pre reading teaching to motivate the students with the steps:

  1. Teacher asks about what the students like, it can be TV program or the popular issues.
  2. The students are dominated by male because Technique Vocational School or SMK, so the topic that is choose is about Moto GP and the teacher started to tell about Moto GP raider. The teacher tells about Ben Spies Moto GP raider from America. The students listen carefully because all the students like Moto GP. After the teacher told about Ben Spies completely, the teacher stops and wait students respond.
  3. After a minute a student asks the teacher, “do you like Moto GP sir?”

Teacher answers “yes” then teacher asks that student, “Who is your favorite raider.

  1. Wait the students answers, here the student answers about his favorite raider enthusiastically because Moto GP is the favorite sport.
  2. The next step is, ask the other students one by one, until all students asked, and support them to answer the question.
  3. After all students ask the questions and they answer, the teacher give the students text related to the question and answer with the questions as the task and students try to answer it.
  4. All the assignment collects to the teacher before the teacher gives homework about what the students like related to the material that day and find out in the internet by giving guidance about web and file to the students.
  5. The next meeting teacher asks the students go to computer laboratory for searching new subject directly in front of the computer and teacher totally guide the students.

Then next meeting students try to present about what they try to look for and find out in the internet. In this research applied reading articles as situational interested text in Google so it depends on the hypertext in the internet as the main media.
 

From the situational interested text above it is clear enough students are available some resources for them to learn more without students think, and they will continue to open new link and read many pages.

 

4.1.2 Result of Observation Notes

During teaching learning process in applying situational interested text s go on, the reseacher observed the condition of the class, and the reseacher elaborated it in form of notification or we call as observation note.

 

Table 1 Observation Notes

Class activity

Teacher’s activity

Students’ activity

Notes

pre-observation in applying reading article as situational interested text

Post-observation in applying reading article as situational interested text

The researcher ordered students to pray first

Greeting to the students

Before coming to the material, the researcher ask about what the students like until the student place in what they like the answer is Moto GP

The researcher asks the students one by one about the team or the raider who students like.

Because time was up, so the researcher gave the text related the material. The students try to answer by written and for home work students try to find out in the internet about what the team or the raider they like to tell at the next meeting.

On the next meeting, the researcher greeted the students try to present what they got

The researcher tried to control the class, by supporting students presentation

The researcher at the

Last meeting try to ask the students as the post test of that day.

At the last meeting the researcher get the students to computer laboratory to guide the student in searching material for learning

Time was up, the researcher closed the class

The next meeting, after greeting the class, the researcher gave students posttest, and advisor them in doing posttest

Finish doing posttest, the researcher discussed it with the students, after that the researcher dealt the result of pretest

The researcher collected all result of pretest and posttest

Closing teaching learning process

The leader  of the class leads the others to pray together

The students gave the greeting responses

Some students can respond by answering what teacher ask

Students try to answer all the questions that deliver to the students although they get difficult to answer but they try.

The students try to do the task.

Some students were difficult to present what they got but they still try by using language they know.

Students present the material thay got from the internet

Some students answer the question with long explanation and some just strictly answer.

Students were busy in finding the files and web for talking.

Students understood to the researcher’s explanation

 

Students responded the greeting and in doing posttest, they did not look as confuse as in doing pretest, but sometimes they faced difficulty and directly asked the researcher

Students were little satisfy since most of them got high score

The students get difficult to said but they still try to said what they like.

The material is rather different but related to the topic

Class was little noisy since some students express what they want to say.

The researcher needed the students more active in classroom by going along in solving something new

Students looked so enthusiast in following the lesson by using situational interested text

By receiving the result of pretest and posttest, students can compare their score before and after giving treatment

 

 4.1.4 The Result of Students’ Score

After applying treatment and giving both pretest and posttest to the students as the sample of this research, now is the turn for the researcher to give information about the result of students’ score both in pretest and posttest. Hopeful, the treatment through reading article as situational interested text can influence the students’ achievement in increasing vocabulary. That is why, to know the result of this research is success or not, the reseacher uses pretest and posttest in taking students’ score, the reseacher know that the reading article as situational interested text will help to develop students’ vocabulary, and here the reseacher compares between the result of pretest and posttest. From comparing pretest and posttest, the reseacher can get the difference of both tests that show the improvement of students’ vocabulary. According to Sugiyono: ” ……experiment can be done by comparing the situation (before and after) or pretest and posttest” (Sugiyono 2003:,303). Therefore in doing research, the researcher applied pretest and posttest to capture the objective of the study. The delineation can be designed as below:

O1 X O2

X          = Treatment which is given

                                               O1           = Score of Pretest (before giving treatment)

                                               O2           = Score of Posttest (after giving treatment)

The influence of treatment toward the score can be formulated:

O2 – O1

O1 = Score of Pretest

O2 = Score of Posttest

(Sugiyono, 2009:75)

 Table 2 Students’ Progress

No

Students’ Code

O1

Treatment (x)

O2

O2-O1

Progress

1

AA

65

Situational Interested Text

80

15

23%

2

AB

65

85

20

31%

3

AC

45

70

25

56%

4

AD

60

85

25

42%

5

AE

50

60

10

20%

6

AF

55

75

20

36%

7

AG

70

90

20

29%

8

AH

55

70

15

27%

9

AI

65

80

15

23%

10

AJ

55

65

10

18%

11

AK

70

80

10

14%

12

AL

65

80

15

23%

13

AM

55

70

15

27%

14

AN

60

65

5

8%

15

AO

60

75

15

25%

16

AP

60

85

25

42%

17

AQ

55

75

20

36%

18

AR

80

90

10

13%

19

AS

75

80

5

7%

20

AT

45

65

20

44%

21

AU

50

80

30

60%

22

AV

75

80

5

7%

23

AW

70

75

5

7%

24

AX

70

80

10

14%

25

AY

70

80

10

14%

26

AZ

70

90

20

29%

27

BA

65

80

15

23%

28

BB

55

65

10

18%

29

BC

55

75

20

36%

30

BD

65

80

15

23%

31

BE

75

80

5

7%

32

BF

60

95

35

58%

33

BG

65

80

15

23%

34

BH

55

75

20

36%

By analyzing table above, we can get the point that students in pretest got low score, meanwhile after getting treatment, the students’ score were increase as looked in posttest result. If we compare the result both pretest and posttest, students’ score in pretest about 45 to 80, meanwhile in posttest about 60 to 95, so the progress is around 7% to 60% from pretest to posttest. It means that situational interested text can influence the students’ achievement in increasing vocabulary.

From the result of pretest and posttest above, the researcher also analyzes the average of students’ score as the proof. In analyzing the average of students’ score, the researcher applied the formulation of average called Mean. Mean can be used in counting rate of change the data of positive score. Therefore, in accounting the students’ score in this research, the researcher uses Means to search rate of change by the average from the score of pretest and posttest of student’s class ninth A. The formulation has been explicated in chapter three.

The average of pretest:

Here the list of students’ scores started from the lowest score until the highest score in pretest:

45        45        50        50        55        55

55        55        55        55        55        55

60        60        60        60        60        65

65        65        65        65        65        65

70        70        70        70        70        70

75        75        75        80                   

  Table 3.1 Distribution Frequency of Pretest

Interval

Frequency

xi

fi.xi

40-48

2

44

88

49-57

10

53

530

58-66

12

62

744

67-75

9

71

639

76-84

1

81

81

Total

34

 

2082

fi.xi   = 2082

fi       = 34

=   = 61, 23

Based on the calculating above means that the average of students’ score in pretest are 61, 23

 

The average of Posttest:

Here the list of students’ scores in posttest started from the lowest score to the highest score:

60        65        65        65        65        70

70        70        75        75        75        75

75        75        80        80        80        80

80        80        80        80        80        80

80        80        80        85        85        85

90        90        90        95                   

Table 3.2 Distribution Frequency of Posttest

Interval

Frequency

xi

fi.xi

58-66

5

62

310

67-75

9

71

639

76-84

13

80

1040

85-93

6

89

534

94-100

1

97

97

Total

34

 

2620

fi.xi   = 2620

fi       = 34

=   = 77, 05

So, the average of students’ score in posttest are 77, 05

Looking at the average of both pretest and posttest, we can compare that the result of posttest is higher than pretest. The difference is 77, 05 – 61, 23 = 15, 82

So, the difference of pretest and posttest are 15, 82. And it shows that the average of posttest is higher than pretest around 26%, and it means that the average of students’ score got increase.

Total of correct answer

                                      X 100%

Total of items number

The researcher also counted the students’ score to know how many students who has got increasing vocabulary in amount of percentage. After getting both the average of pretest and posttest, the researcher also analyzed the percentage of students’ vocabulary achievement from comparison both pretest and posttest by formulation:

Table 4.1 Students’ score in Pretest

Notes:  1 (correct number)

0 (incorrect number)

Table 4.2 Students’ Score in Posttest

Notes: 1 (correct answer)

0 (incorrect answer)

From tables above, we can see the percentage of students’ score in pretest and posttest that show many students get progress in increasing vocabulary. The result of pretest shows that only 62% of students who have high of vocabulary, while the others still have low of vocabulary. If we compare to the result of posttest, there are 77% students who have progress in increasing vocabulary after getting treatment by the researcher. We can conclude that the progress of students’ vocabulary gets increase around 15% and situational interested text  can influence the students’ vocabulary achievement.

4.1.5 Reliability of Pretest and Posttest

As the result of research, the researcher not only analyzed students’ score, but also the test items which were given to the students to measure how far the quality of the test items both pretest and posttest. There are several steps in analyzing the quality of test items involved:

 

1. Analyzing the Distribution of students’ score

Here, the researcher uses Spearman-brown formula (split half), things need to be calculated to use this formula is by dividing the number of students into two groups, upper and lower, and the answer of the students should be divided into two groups odd and even number. The researcher shows the result of students’ answer in the table that is correct answer (1), incorrect (0), total of correct answer in odd of items’ number (Odd), and total of correct answer in even of items’ number (Even).

Table 5 Distribution of Students’ Score in Pretest

5.1 Upper

 

5.2 Lower

Table 6 Distribution of Students’ Score in Posttest

6.1 Upper

6.2 Lower

2. Analyzing the Reliability of Test Items

In statistic, reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or of a measuring instrument, often used to describe a test. To get valid criterion of reliability, we have to calculate the test result by using some formula. In this research, the researcher used Spearman-Brown formula or familiar with the name split half to calculate the reliability of test items given to the students. This formulation is applied to calculate the reliability, and to know the quality of test items given the formulation is:

Notes:

r           = Coefficient reliability between odd and even

n          = Number of students

∑X      = Total score of odd number

∑Y      = Total score of even number

X²        = Square of X

Y²        = Square of Y

By applying formulation above, the researcher needs the formulation to complete the reliability. To know the coefficient all of test items, the researcher uses the following formulation:

And the criterion of the reliability is:

0.90 -1.00        = high

0.50 – 0.89       = moderate (satisfactory)

0.00 ­ 0.49       = low

Table 7.1 Reliability of Pretest

No

Students’

Odd (x)

Even (y)

XY

X2

Y2

XY

code

1

AA

8

5

13

64

25

40

2

AB

7

6

13

49

36

42

3

AC

6

3

9

36

9

18

4

AD

7

5

12

49

25

35

5

AE

5

5

10

25

25

25

6

AF

7

4

11

49

16

28

7

AG

8

6

14

64

36

48

8

AH

7

4

11

49

16

28

9

AI

8

5

13

64

25

40

10

AJ

6

5

11

36

25

30

11

AK

8

6

14

64

36

48

12

AL

7

6

13

49

36

42

13

AM

6

5

11

36

25

30

14

AN

6

6

12

36

36

36

15

AO

7

5

12

49

25

35

16

AP

7

5

12

49

25

35

17

AQ

6

5

11

36

25

30

18

AR

9

7

16

81

49

63

19

AS

9

6

15

81

36

54

20

AT

5

4

9

25

16

20

21

AU

6

4

10

36

16

24

22

AV

8

7

15

64

49

56

23

AW

7

7

14

49

49

49

24

AX

9

5

14

81

25

45

25

AY

8

6

14

64

36

48

26

AZ

9

5

14

81

25

45

27

BA

8

5

13

64

25

40

28

BB

7

4

11

49

16

28

29

BC

7

4

11

49

16

28

30

BD

8

5

13

64

25

40

31

BE

9

6

15

81

36

54

32

BF

7

5

12

49

25

35

33

BG

7

6

13

49

36

42

34

BH

7

4

11

49

16

28

Total

246

176

422

1820

942

1289

 

Calculation:

X2 = 1820

Y2 = 942

XY = 1289

N = 34

X = 246

Y=176

 (Moderate)

So, the criterion of pretest items is Moderate. It means that the test items given to the students are valid and can be applied in the class. Pretest was given to the students before accepting the treatment. Therefore, students still faced some difficulties in answering the test given.

 Table 7.2 Reliability of Posttest

No

Students’

Odd (x)

Even (y)

XY

X2

Y2

XY

code

1

AA

7

9

16

49

81

63

2

AB

7

10

17

49

100

70

3

AC

7

7

14

49

49

49

4

AD

7

10

17

49

100

70

5

AE

6

6

12

36

36

36

6

AF

7

8

15

49

64

56

7

AG

8

10

18

64

100

80

8

AH

7

7

14

49

49

49

9

AI

7

9

16

49

81

63

10

AJ

6

7

13

36

49

42

11

AK

8

8

16

64

64

64

12

AL

7

9

16

49

81

63

13

AM

7

7

14

49

49

49

14

AN

6

7

13

36

49

42

15

AO

7

8

15

49

64

56

16

AP

7

8

15

49

64

56

17

AQ

7

8

15

49

64

56

18

AR

9

9

18

81

81

81

19

AS

7

9

16

49

81

63

20

AT

6

7

13

36

49

42

21

AU

9

7

16

81

49

63

22

AV

9

7

16

81

49

63

23

AW

7

8

15

49

64

56

24

AX

7

9

16

49

81

63

25

AY

9

7

16

81

49

63

26

AZ

8

10

18

64

100

80

27

BA

6

10

16

36

100

60

28

BB

7

6

13

49

36

42

29

BC

7

8

15

49

64

56

30

BD

8

8

16

64

64

64

31

BE

7

9

16

49

81

63

32

BF

9

10

19

81

100

90

33

BG

9

7

16

81

49

63

34

BH

7

8

15

49

64

56

Total

249

277

526

1853

2305

2032

 Calculation:

X2 = 1853

Y2 = 2305

XY = 2032

N = 34

X = 249

Y=277

47

 (Moderate)

The criterion of posttest items is moderate also. It means that the test is given neither easy nor difficult. Reliability is just to measure the quality of test items, not to measure the ability of students.

 

48

3. Analyzing Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power

In analyzing the items, we need to calculate the Level of Difficulty (LD). It tells us about the level of difficult from the test item which is tested to the students. The result of distribution of students’ score can be analyzed in Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power by formulation:

LD       = Level of Difficulty

R          = Number of students who answer correctly

N         = Total of Students

The criterion is:

LD: < 0.30             = Difficult

LD: <0.31 – 0.70    = Satisfactory

LD: > 0.71             = Easy

Meanwhile the discrimination power that the extent to which the item is discriminating between the low level of students and the highest level on that test. So, Discrimination power is to know the quality of each item. The formulation is below:

DP  = Discrimination Power

U    = Number of correct answer in Upper class

L     = Number of correct answer in Lower class

N    = Total of students

And the criterion is:

DP: 0.00 – 0.19                      = poor

DP: 0.20 – 0.39                      = satisfactory

DP: 0.49 – 0.69                      = good

DP: 0.70 – 1.00                      = excellent

DP: Negative (-)                     = bad item, should be omitted

 

49

able 8.1 Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Pretest

No of Items

Correct

Correct

Total of

LD

Remark

DP

Remark

Answer (U)

Answer (L)

U+L

1

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

2

17

16

33

0,97

Easy

0,06

Poor

3

16

15

31

0,91

Easy

0,06

Poor

4

16

14

30

0,88

Easy

0,12

Poor

5

17

13

30

0,88

Easy

0,24

Satisfactory

6

15

16

31

0,91

Easy

-0,06

Bad Item

7

16

16

32

0,94

Easy

0,00

Poor

8

9

7

16

0,47

Satisfactory

0,12

Poor

9

2

4

6

0,18

Difficult

-0,12

Bad Item

10

2

1

3

0,09

Difficult

0,06

Poor

11

3

11

14

0,41

Satisfactory

-0,47

Bad Item

12

5

7

12

0,35

Satisfactory

-0,12

Bad Item

13

12

17

29

0,85

Easy

-0,29

Bad Item

14

2

4

6

0,18

Difficult

-0,12

Bad Item

15

8

10

18

0,53

Satisfactory

-0,12

Bad Item

16

5

9

14

0,41

Satisfactory

-0,24

Bad Item

17

8

11

19

0,56

Satisfactory

-0,18

Bad Item

18

1

3

4

0,12

Difficult

-0,12

Bad Item

19

17

16

33

0,97

Easy

0,06

Poor

20

14

13

27

0,79

Easy

0,06

Poor

Table 8.2 Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Posttest

No of Items

Correct

Correct

Total of

LD

Remark

DP

Remark

Answer (U)

Answer (L)

U+L

1

15

15

30

0,88

Easy

0,00

Poor

2

16

16

32

0,94

Easy

0,00

Poor

3

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

4

11

10

21

0,62

Satisfactory

0,06

Poor

5

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

6

11

9

20

0,59

Satisfactory

0,12

Poor

7

2

5

7

0,21

Difficult

-0,18

Bad Item

8

16

16

32

0,94

Easy

0,00

Poor

9

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

10

17

16

33

0,97

Easy

0,06

Poor

11

3

9

12

0,35

Satisfactory

-0,35

Bad Item

12

6

6

12

0,35

Satisfactory

0,00

Poor

13

14

12

26

0,76

Easy

0,12

Poor

14

14

16

30

0,88

Easy

-0,12

Bad Item

15

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

16

17

17

34

1,00

Easy

0,00

Poor

17

2

5

7

0,21

Difficult

-0,18

Bad Item

18

13

17

30

0,88

Easy

-0,24

Bad Item

19

14

17

31

0,91

Easy

-0,18

Bad Item

20

17

16

33

0,97

Easy

0,06

Poor

50

4.1.6 The Validity of Test Items

One of the factors for determining the quality of the test is validity. Validity refers to the extent to which the test measures what it was intended to measure. It relates directly to the purpose of the test. As in Data Analysis Technique, the researcher uses validity of test that consists of Content validity, construct validity and face validity.

1. Content Validity

It is concerned with what goes into the test, the content of the test should be decided by considering the purpose of the assessment.

2. Construct Validity

It is capable of measuring certain characteristic in accordance with a theory of language behavior and learning.

3. Face Validity

If the test item looks right to other testers, teachers, and moderators, it relates to the performance of the test, instruction or direction in answering various kinds of questions, the arrangement of the typing.

a. Validity of Pretest

Table 9.1 Content Validity

No

Material Tested

Item No

1.

2.

3.

4.

Applying new vocabularies

Identify the word

Antonym

Determining appropriate word

1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9

6

10

11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20

 

51

Table 9.2 Construct Validity

Item No

Types of Vocabulary test

Validity

Clarification

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

11,12,13,14,15,16,

17,18,19,20

Testing Thing

Valid

Discrete Item

Table 9.3 Face Validity

No

Criteria

Check (Yes/No)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Clear Instruction

Clear Writing

Clear Question

Correct Spelling

Enough Space

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

b. Validity of Posttest

Table 10.1 Content Validity

No

Material Tested

Item No

1.

2.

3.

4.

Applying new vocabularies

Synonym

Identify the words

Determining appropriate word

2,3,5

1,4

6,7,8,9,10

11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20

Table 10.2 Construct Validity

Item No

Types of Vocabulary test

Validity

Clarification

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

11,12,13,14,15,16,

17,18,19,20

Testing Thing

Valid

Discrete Item

 Table 10.3 Face Validity

No

Criteria

Check (Yes/No)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Clear Instruction

Clear Writing

Clear Question

Correct Spelling

Enough Space

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 4.2 Discussion

After analyzing the result of pretest, the researcher got the average of students’ score is 61, 23. It means that most of the students still got low score because they had low vocabulary also. Based on that case, the researcher decided to help them in increasing vocabulary through situational interested text. Hopeful, later on after getting treatment from the researcher, the students can get higher score than in pretest.

Based on the data that have been displayed in the previous section, the data in this research shows that the influence of situational interested text  in increasing vocabulary is high. The result of pretest shows that only 62% of students who have high of vocabulary, while the others still have low of vocabulary. If we compare to the result of posttest, there are 77% students who have progress in increasing vocabulary after getting treatment by the researcher. We can conclude that the progress of students’ vocabulary got increase around 15% and situational interested text can influence the students’ vocabulary achievement.

Referring to the result of the test, the researcher found that students who got high score were active students in learning process. It means that in learning vocabulary, students should be persuaded students to go along the process. They did not only pay attention toward the learning process, but also went along the process. Students who have high of vocabulary will follow the test better than students who have low of vocabulary. It is clear that situational interested text  can influence in increasing students’ vocabulary.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

 5. 1 Conclusion

Based on the result of research that has been discussed in the previous chapter toward the students’ score in vocabulary, the researcher got conclusion that situational interested text can influence students’ in increasing vocabulary. Because situational interested texts are kinds of visual instruction materials might be used more effectively to develop and sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes towards English and to teach or reinforce language skills. The usage of situational interested text   is more efficient and effective than words. That is why the researcher tried to apply situational interested text   to help students in increasing vocabulary.

The type of situational interested text   which was used by researcher is situational interested text s of individual thing. This type may be used mainly at the elementary level, to introduce or test vocabulary items. It is clear that situational interested text   can help the students in increasing their vocabulary to ease in following the real material later on. To measure the progress in research, the researcher has applied two tests those are pretest and posttest. The result of pretest is 62% students who got high score; meanwhile the result of posttest is 77% students who got high score. So, the percentage of students’ score is increase after getting treatment by using situational interested text. It means that the role of situational interested text to help the students in increasing vocabulary is success and can influence the students’ achievement. Besides that, the researcher also analyzed the average of students’ scores both pretest and posttest which was counted based on the students’ scores. The average of students’ scores in pretest are 61, 23, while the average of students’ scores in posttest are 77, 05. The difference between both tests are 15, 82. It can be defined that the students’ scores got increase 15, 82 point or around 26%. In another word, situational interested text   really help the students in increasing vocabulary. It may be useful in following the material later.

5.2 Suggestion

Based on the result and conclusion above, the researcher proposed some suggestions as follow:

 1. For teacher

To ease the students in following the material, it would be better for teacher to give the students much new vocabularies. The topic of vocabulary can be adapted to the material taught based on syllabus. Teacher should applied a technique as interesting as possible to attract students’ interesting in learning process. Teacher should be more creative in determining method or media to deliver the material. One of the technique is using situational interested text   to help the students in increasing vocabulary achievement.

2. For Students

English as the international language is very important to be learnt. So, the students at least should master it. The students at school should respect and pay attention when the teacher delivered the material so that teaching learning process runs well. The students at college should be study hard before having the research at school. By applying research also, the students can measure and improve the ability that has got from lecturers at college.

Hopefully this research will contribute the information to other researcher who wants to do research in order populations who have the similar research characteristic.

REFERENCES

…….2011.Reliabilitas.http://www.pdfqueen.com/reliabilitas Accessed on Friday, 11th           

November 2011

…….2011.Reliability.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_(statistics) Accessed on

Wednesday,   2nd November 2011

Aeborsold, Jo Ann and Mary lee Field.1977. From reader to reading teacher.New

York:Cambridge University Press

Arikunto,Suharsimi.1997.Prosedur Penelitian suatu pendekatan praktik.    

Jakarta:RinekaCipta

 Collier-Macmillan International.1971.The key to english vocabulary.A Division of  the Macmillan Company: English Services London: Collier Macmillan   Limited

 Campbell, J.R., Voelkl, K.E., & Donahue, P.L. 1997. NAEP 1996.Ttrends in academic progress (NCES Publication No. 97985r). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://www.readingonline.org/articles/handbook/

 Accessed on Friday, 4th November 2011

 Crystal,David.1995.The cambridge encyclopedia of the english language.   Australia: Cambridge University press

 Fathoni. 2006. Methodology penelitian dan teknik penyusunan skripsi. Jakarta:PT

 Rineka Cipta.

Furchan,Arief.2009.Cara praktis meningkatkan vocabulary. http://pendidikanislam.net/ accessed on Monday, 31st October 2011

 Guthrie, J.T., Van Meter, P., McCann, A.D., Wigfield, A., Bennett, L., Poundstone, C.C., Rice, M.E., Faibisch, F.M., Hunt, B., & Mitchell, A.M. 1996. Growth of literacy engagement: Changes in motivations and strategies during concept-oriented reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 31, 306-332.

 Hornby, A.S. 1963. Oxford advance dictionary of current english. London: Oxford            University press

 Long, Michael H. and Jack C. Rhicards.1987.Methodology in TESOL: a Book of    readings.New York: Newbury House Publishers

 Masyuri. 2008. Metode penelitian. Bandung:Refika Aditrama

 McCarthy, Michael.1992.Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Thornbury, Scott.2004. How to teach vocabulary. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Nasution. 2009. Metode research. Jakarta:Bumi Aksara

Nation,I.S.P.1990.Teaching and Learning Vocabulary.New York: Newbury House  Publishers

Nazir, Mohammad. 2005. Metode penelitian.Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia

 ’Dell,F.1997.Incorporating vocabulary into the syllabus.            http://www.cup.es/us/esl/touchstone/images/pdf/McCarten_booklet.pdf      Accessed o Friday, 4th November 2011

 Pread, John. 1988. Measuring the vocabulary knowledge ofsSecond Language        learners.REIC Journal, 19.No.2

 Schmitt, Norbert.1997. Vocabulary in language teaching.USA: Cambridge  University Press

 Sudjana. 1996. Metode statistika. Bandung:Tarsito

 Sugiyono. 2009.Metode penelitian kuantitatif ualitatif dan r&d. Bandung:    Alfabeta

Surahmad, Winarmo. 1985. Pengantarpenelitian ilmiah. Bandung:Tarsito

By teguh2tyo

CD APPLICATION ANALYSIS

1. SPEAK ENGLISH

Euro Talk interactive

LEARN BRITISH ENGLISH

The program is run speaking and listening, the learner will hear some words, phrases, and and sentences, thus in dialogue from the program and availabled to compare space for genuine voice between the learner and the genuine voice. It is a complete application for learning English listening and speaking. The program is complete program for the learner because the learners are able to leaner listening started from word, phrase, sentence, and dialogue, thus speaking directly, and the learner can compare the learner’s voices and the real from the application by recording, quiz for the learner.

Main display for the program where the learner can choose what the learner want to choose.

The steps for using the application are:

  1. Install the software first but the still using the cd inside, until this lay out is displayed.
  2. Type your name at the below box for registration
  3. After this display is gotten the learner can choose the menu
  4. The learner are able to see the sentence and able to hear the voice
  5. The display for the application tcompleted by the dialogue

The program actually as Quick time installer version 7.1.3.100, copyright apple computer. inc. 1989-2006 with the size of the memory used 18,7 mb. Running the applications need high resolution 1024×768 bit at least.

Purpose

Guide the users of the CD to learn English from the first of learning English, all elements of learning English such as listening, reading, structure and Speaking can be indirectly learned. The users are able to study from the simple one because the user can start phrase practice until dialogue practice. These are performed almost the element of learning English like reading from the display of dialogue on the screen, listening can be acquired from the sound of the CD, moreover speaking users can apply by record the users’ voices. It is a complete learning.

The Strength of the Application

  1. The application relatively easy to use
  2. Give clear explanation indirectly for each word, phrase, sentence and dialogue for the user.
  3. Totally guide the user for learning English in speaking by recording, listening by clear speaking from the program, and perform the words, phrase, and sentence for the display and dialogue.
  4. Include quiz inside which make the user know the result of the learning.
  5. Clear sound.

The Weakness of The Application

  1. Difficult to instal for the beginner of Computer User.
  2. Need relatively high end computer, the resolution at least 1024×768 bit.
  3. Big memory used.
  4. Depend on the CD player because it is not autorun without CD player.
  5. Need high spec. computer, the autorun is on CD and cmomputer system.

2. LEARN ENGLISH

Euro Talk interactive

The application consist some menus inside such as:

  1. Word Practice
  2. Speaking Practice
  3. Easy Game
  4. Hard Game

Follow some choices of the game, the learner can learn by guessing simple game like flags, food, or country to guess the name from the pictures after that followed by the voice from the application. The application completed some source for learning; to finish all the menus of the game need long time enough. The learner can use it for listening speaking and understand speling from the game inside. The application is portable, the learner can use the CD only for playing the application without plug in the system.

Purpose

Whoever the user of the CD will be guided indirectly by the CD. It is interactive CD, just follow the menus inside the user as learner brought to follow the conversation like nature condition, as they hear and see directly then they can apply it indirectly

The Strength of The Application

  1. The application is portable it doesn’t use the system of the computer.
  2. Interactive to use because includes the game inside, the user indirectly learn.
  3. Easy to operate, thus for the beginner.
  4. Totally guide the user by simple instruction and clear words and sentences used.

The Weakness of The Application

  1. High risk because the system in CD only, if the is CD broken, it can’t be used anymore.
  2. The user who usually play game will focus on the way to finish without take care for the sentences that appear from the program.
  3. Easy to copy.

3.ENGLISH WORD

A game for children with many menu can be taken and some indirectly instruction order. For the learner actually it is icebreaker but when the children follow the instruction the learner will understand some English word instinctively without they think at the time of playing the game. It completely indirect learning such as direct method or natural approach in teaching and learning, because the children just follow what they do in game when the game finish they indirectly learn some words.

The first name of English Word. Ink. a simple game running the applications need resolution 1024×768 bit at least.

The Strength of The Application

  1. A game easy to use
  2. Interactive game and almost the children as the the learner like it.
  3. Give some new words and sentences by explanation after the player of the game success.
  4. instruction means learns, the user should focus on the instruction if not always fail. It makes the user or the player read carefully the instruction, It means learning.
  5. Completed many features of the game, it means reads many instruction and read many sentences.

The Weakness of The Application

  1. For gamer it is too easy.
  2. The children sometimes just remember the way without take care the instructions, it means remember game procedures without understanding the sentences as the instruction.
  3. The application use CD and Computer system to operate the game.

4. SAT SOFT VOCABULARY

The game actually similar with the game before, for the learner actually it is icebreaker but when the children follow the instruction the learner will understand some english word instinctively without they think at the time of playing the game. It completely indirect learning such as direct method or natural approach in teaching and learning, because the children just follow what they do in game when the game finish they indirectly learn some word. But this game has different focus for the children, the children guided to follow the direction and some word carefully and follow the game

The Strength of The Application

  1. A game easy to use
  2. Interactive game and almost the children as the the learner like it.
  3. Give some words and sentences by explanation after the player of the game success.
  4. instruction means learns, the user should not focus on the instruction . It rather slow explanation and easy to understand

The Weakness of The Application

  1. For gamer it is too easy, sometime make boring.
  2. The children sometimes just remember the way without take care the instructions, it means remember game procedures without understanding the sentences as the instruction.
  3. The application use CD and Computer system to operate the game.
  4. Too simple game sometime children disk like this game.
By teguh2tyo

ICT Article 1

e better if the user has some resources to display what we make in our blog or web.

Here the writer tries to share a way to perform the present by using another method. We know to perform presentation some blogger use slideshared; here, we can use google document with some advantages inside such as: rather easier, and need only little time to finish, beside the writer here get difficult to perform slideshared because make some mistake, until the e mail can’t be used anymore. The best way for the writer is find another way and google document is the choise.

STEPS DISPLAY PRESENTATION BY GOOGLE DOCUMENT

The easy way is make account in google mail, when it is finished open the account of the google document are:

  1. open documents in google document
  2. Upload the file presentation by clicking the tab uploading
  3. File uploading automatically get from the computer driver, it needs time depend in the file.
  4. After the file is save in google documents then continue to display in the blog, and the steps are:

– Open the file first by clicking

– Share it by clicking the icon share at the right side.

– For publishing the presentation in the blog click publish.

– Take HTML syntax and put it in the page and choose HTML.

The presentation file ready to display on the web just click publish, this steps at the last using HTML syntax; it is the new one to make powerpoint publishing in wordpress, but anyway it is easy way to do because only need little time to do.

By teguh2tyo